Selected biological, ecological, and genetic literature relevant to Monterey pine

This selection of the biological literature for Monterey pine focuses on studies of genetic diversity and genetic structure of this species, with some references on inheritance, reproductive biology, and ecology of the native Monterey pine forests. Also included here are some general references that discuss genetic principles or present case studies of genetic diversity in other forest tree species as well as several references that discuss studies or programs related to tree improvement. These latter represent only a small fraction of the broader literature on those topics. This selection contains approximately 360 references, arranged in alphabetical order by authors.

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Aagaard, J.E., S.S. Vollmer, F.C. Sorensen, and S.J. Strauss. 1995. Mitochondrial DNA products among RAPD profiles are frequent and strongly differentiated between races of Douglas-fir. Mol. Ecol. 4:441–447.

Adams, D., S. Frankel, and T. Tidwell. 1999. Chronicle of pitch canker in California. p. 49–53 In: M. Devey, C. Matheson, and T. Gordon (eds.) Current and potential impacts of pitch canker in radiata pine. Proceedings of the IMPACT Monterey workshop, Monterey, California, November 30 to December 3, 1998. CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products Technical Report No. 112. Canberra, Australia.

Ades, P.K. and J.A. Simpson. 1991. Variation in susceptibility to Dothistroma needle blight among provenances of Pinus radiata var. radiata. Silv. Genet. 40:6–13.

Agee, J.K. 1998. Fire and pine ecosystems . p. 193–218 In: D.M. Richardson (ed.) Ecology and biogeography of Pinus. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge, UK.

Alazard, P. and D.X. Destremau. 1982. De l’expérimentation en France de Pinus radiata. Résultats préliminaires. Ann. Rech. Sylvic. 1981:4–33.

Aragonés, A., I. Barrena, S. Espinel, A. Herran, and E. Ritter. 1997. Origin of Basque populations of radiata pine inferred from RAPD data. Annales des Science Forestières 54:697–703.

Axelrod, D.I. 1980. History of the maritime closed-cone pines, Alta and Baja California. University of California Publications in Geological Sciences. Vol. 120. University of California Press. Berkeley, CA USA.

Axelrod, D.I. 1981. Holocene climatic changes in relation to vegetation disjunction and speciation. Am. Nat. 117:847–870.

Axelrod, D.I. 1982. Age and origin of the Monterey endemic area. Madroño 29:127–147.

Axelrod, D.I. 1986. Cenozoic history of some western American pines. Ann. Mo. Bot. Gard. 73:565–641.

Azevedo, J. and D.L. Morgan. 1974. Fog precipitation in coastal California forests. Ecology 55:1135–1141.

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Bannister, M.H. 1954. Variation in a sample of Pinus radiata cones from the Nelson district. Trans. Royal Soc. N.Z. 82:25–40.

Bannister, M.H. 1958. Specimens of two pine trees from Guadalupe Island, Mexico. N. Z. J. For. 7:81–87.

Bannister, M.H. 1965. Variation in the breeding system of Pinus radiata. p. 353–372 In: H.G. Baker and G.L. Stebbins (eds.) The genetics of colonizing species. Academic Press. New York, NY.

Bannister, M.H. and I.R.C. McDonald. 1983. Turpentine composition of the pines of Guadalupe and Cedros Islands, Baja California. N. Z. J. Bot. 21:373–377.

Bannister, M.H., A.L. Williams, I. R.C. McDonald, and M.B. Forde. 1962. Variation of turpentine composition in five population samples of Pinus radiata. N. Z. J. Science 5:486–495.

Barbour, M. 1995. Letter to the editor. Fremontia 23:32–33.

Barbour, M., B. Pavlik, F. Drysdale, and S. Lindstrom. 1993. California’s changing landscapes. California Native Plant Society. Sacramento, CA USA.

Bergman, B.A., S.D. Carson, and A.M. Stomp. 1995. Heritability of in vitro characteristics and correlation with field performance in Pinus radiata. Can. J. For. Res. 25:1944–1952.

Birky, C.W., Jr. 1988. Evolution and variation in plant chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes. p. 23–53 In: L.D. Gottlieb and S.K. Jain (eds.) Plant evolutionary biology. Chapman and Hall. London.

Bishop-Hurley, S.L., R.J. Zabkiewicz, L. Grace, R.C. Gardner, A. Wagner, and C. Walter. 2001. Conifer genetic engineering: transgenic Pinus radiata (D. Don) and Picea abies (Karst) plants are resistant to the herbicide Buster. Plant Cell Rep. 20:235–243.

Bollmann, M.P. and G.B. Sweet. 1976. Bud morphogenesis of Pinus radiata in New Zealand. 1: The initiation and extension of the leading shoot of one clone at two sites. N. Z. J. For. Sci. 6:376–392.

Bonner, F.T. 1990. Storage of seeds: potential and limitations for germplasm conservation. For. Ecol. Manag. 35:35–43.

Bonnie, R. S. Schwartzman, M. Oppenheimer, and J. Bloomfield. 2000. Counting the cost of deforestation. Science 288:1763–1764.

Boosma, D. 1997. Development of the Southern Tree Breeding Association radiata pine breeding population. p. 211–216 In: R.D. Burdon and J.M. Moore (eds.) IUFRO ’97 Genetics of radiata pine. Proceedings of NZ FRI-IUFRO Conference 1–4 December and Workshop 5 December, Rotorua, New Zealand. FRI Bulletin No. 203.

Booth, T.H. 1990. Mapping regions climatically suitable for particular tree species at the global scale. For. Ecol. Manag. 36:47–60.

Bostic, D.L. 1975. A natural history guide to the Pacific coast of north central Baja California and adjacent islands. Biological Educational Expeditions. Vista, CA.

Bradley, R. 2000. 1000 years of climate change. Science 288:1353, 1355.

Bragdon, S.H. and D.R. Downes. 1998. Recent policy trends and developments related to the conservation, use and development of genetic resources. Issues in Genetic Resources No. 7. International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, Rome, Italy.

Brown, A.H.D. and G.F. Moran. 1979. Isozymes and the genetic resources of forest trees. p. 1–10 In: M.T. Conkle (ed.) Isozymes of North American forest trees and insects. Proceedings of Symposium July 1979, Berkeley, CA. Pacific Southwest Research Station Technical Report No. 48.

Buchert, G.P., O.P. Fajora, J.V. Hood, and B.P. Dancik. 1997. Effects of harvesting on genetic diversity in old-growth eastern white pine in Ontario, Canada. Cons. Bio. 11:747–758.

Burdon, R.D. 1984. Gene resources management plan for Pinus radiata in New Zealand. N.Z. For. Serv., For. Res. Inst. Project Record 4-21. Unpublished report.

Burdon, R.D. 1988. Recruitment for breeding populations: objectives, genetics, and implementation. p. 555–572 In: B.S. Weir, E.J. Eisen, M.M. Goodman, and G. Namkoong (eds.) Proc. 2nd International Conference on Quantitative Genetics. Sinauer Associates, Inc. Sunderland, MA USA.

Burdon, R.D. 1992. Genetic survey of Pinus radiata. 9. General discussion and implications for genetic management. N. Z. J. For. Sci. 22:274–298.

Burdon, R.D. 1992. Introduced forest trees in New Zealand: Recognition, role, and seed source. 12. Radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don). FRI Bulletin No. 124. New Zealand Forest Research Institute, Rotorua, New Zealand.

Burdon, R.D. 2000. Pinus radiata. p. 99–161 In: F.T. Last (ed) Ecosystems of the world. Vol. 19. Tree Crop Ecosystems. Elsevier Science.

Burdon, R.D. 2001. Genetic diversity and disease resistance: some considerations for research, breeding, and deployment. Can. J. For. Res. 31:596–606.

Burdon, R.D. and M.H. Bannister. 1970. The natural populations of Pinus radiata: Their early development and a provisional evaluation of their silvicultural potential in New Zealand. GTI Report No. 49. Unpublished report. Forest Research Institute, Rotorua, New Zealand.

Burdon, R.D., M.H. Bannister, and C.B. Low. 1992. Genetic survey of Pinus radiata. 2. Population comparisons for growth rate, disease resistance, and morphology. N. Z. J. For. Sci. 22:138–159.

Burdon, R.D., M.H. Bannister, H.A.I. Madgwick, and C.B. Low. 1992. Genetic survey of Pinus radiata. 1. Introduction, description of experiment, and basic methodology. N. Z. J. For. Sci. 22:119–137.

Burdon, R.D., P. Broekhuizen, and J.A. Zabkiewicz. 1997. Comparison of native-population and New Zealand land-race samples of Pinus radiata using cortical oleoresin monoterpenes. p. 50–56 In: R.D. Burdon and J.M. Moore (eds.) IUFRO ’97 Genetics of radiata pine. Proceedings of NZ FRI-IUFRO Conference 1–4 December and Workshop 5 December, Rotorua, New Zealand. FRI Bulletin No. 203.

Burdon, R.D. and M.J. Carson. 2000. Conservation and management of genetic resources of commercial forests in New Zealand: Challenges to institutional changes and new technology. p. 235–246 In: C. Mátyás (ed.) Forest genetics and sustainability, Volume 63. Kluwer Academic Publishers. The Netherlands.

Burdon, R.D., A. Firth, C.B. Low, and M.A. Miller. 1997. Native provenances of Pinus radiata in New Zealand: Performance and potential. N. Z. For. 41:32–36.

Burdon, R.D., R.E. Gaskin, C.B. Low, and J.A. Zabkiewicz. 1992. Clonal repeatability of monoterpene composition of cortical oleoresin of Pinus radiata. N. Z. J. For. Sci. 22: 299–305.

Burdon, R.D., R.E. Gaskin, J.A. Zabkiewicz, and C.B. Low. 1992. Genetic survey of Pinus radiata. 7. Variation and inheritance of pinene composition in wood oleoresin. N. Z. J. For. Sci. 22: 246–256.

Burdon, R.D. and C.B. Low. 1973. Effects of site expression of cone characters in radiata pine. N. Z. J. For. Sci. 3:110–119.

Burdon, R.D. and C.B. Low. 1977. Variation in needle characters of Pinus radiata from mainland California. N. Z. J. For. Sci. 7:16–20.

Burdon, R.D., J.A. Zabkiewicz, and I.A. Andrew. 1992. Genetic survey of Pinus radiata. 8. Population differences in monoterpene composition of cortical oleoresin. N. Z. J. of For. Sci. 22:257–273.

Butcher, T.B. and M.J.C. Stukely. 1997. Variation in natural populations of Pinus radiata to resistance to Phytophthora cinnamomi. p. 105–107 In: R.D. Burdon and J.M. Moore (eds.) IUFRO ’97 Genetics of radiata pine. Proceedings of NZ FRI-IUFRO Conference 1–4 December and Workshop 5 December, Rotorua, New Zealand. FRI Bulletin No. 203.

Butcher, T.B., M.J.C. Stukely, and G.W. Chester. 1984. Genetic variation in resistance of Pinus radiata to Phytophthora cinnamomi. For. Ecol. Manag. 8:197–220.

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CalEPPC. 2001. California Exotic Pest Plant Council. http://caleppc.org.

Carpenter, E.J. and R.E. Storie. 1933. Soil survey of the San Luis Obispo area, California. U.S. Dept. Agr. Bur. Chem. and Soils No. 29, Series 1928.

Carson, S.D. 1989. Selecting Pinus radiata for resistance to Dothistroma needle blight. N. Z. J. of For. Sci. 19:3–21.

Carson, H.L. 1990. Increased genetic variance after a population bottleneck. TREE 5:228–230.

Cato, S.A. and T.E. Richardson. 1996. Inter and intraspecific polymorphism at chloroplast SSR loci and the inheritance of plastids in Pinus radiata D. Don. Theor. Appl. Genet. 93:587–592.

Cato, S.A., R.C. Gardner, J. Kent, and T.E. Richardson. 2001. A rapid PRC-based method for genetically mapping ESTs. Theor. Appl. Genet. 102:296–306.

Chambers, S.M. 1995. Spatial structure, genetic variation, and the neighborhood adjustment to effective population size. Cons. Bio. 9:1312–1315.

CNPS. 1999. A petition to the State of California Fish and Game Commission: Monterey Pine. California Native Plant Society. Sacramento, CA USA.

Cobb, F.W. Jr. and W.J. Libby. 1968. Susceptibility of Monterey, Guadalupe Island, Cedros Island, and bishop pines to Scirrhia (Dothistroma) pini, the cause of red band needle blight. Phytopath. 58:88–90.

CONABIO. 2000. La Comisión Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad. Website: http://www.conabio.gob.mx.

Conkle, M.T. 1981. Isozyme variation and linkage in six conifer species. p. 11–17 In: M.T. Conkle (ed.) Isozymes of North American forest trees and insects. Proceedings of Symposium July 1979, Berkeley, CA. Pacific Southwest Research Station Technical Report No. 48.

Conkle, M.T. 1987. Electrophoretic analysis of variation in native Monterey cypress (Cupressus macrocarpa Hartw.). p. 249–256 In: T.S. Elias (ed.) Conservation and management of rare and endangered plants. California Native Plant Society. Sacramento, CA.

Copes, D.L. 1981. Isozyme uniformity in western red cedar seedlings from Oregon and Washington. Can. J. For. Res. 11:451–453.

Corrigan, H., S. Naupa, R. Likiafu, J. Tungon, C. Sam, L. Kalamor, I. Viji, L. Mele, and L. Thomson. 2000. A strategy for investigating, conserving, and managing the genetic resources of Agathis silbae (Santo kauri). SPRIG Project/Department of Forests. Republic of Vanuatu.

Corrigan, H., S. Naupa, R. Likiafu, J. Tungon, C. Sam, I. Viji, L. Kalamor, L. Mele, S. Walker, S. Collins, and L. Thomson. 2000. A strategy for conserving, managing, and better utilizing the genetic resources of Endospermum medullosum (whitewood). SPRIG Project/Department of Forests. Republic of Vanuatu.

Cotterill, P.P. 1984. A plan for breeding radiata pine. Silvae Genet. 33: 84–90.

Cotterill, P.P., C.A. Dean, and G. van Wyk. 1987. Additive and dominance genetic effects in Pinus pinaster, P. radiata and P. elliottii and some implications for breeding strategy. Silvae Genet. 36:221–232.

Critchfield, W.B. 1967. Crossability and relationships of the California closed cone pines. Silvae Genet. 16:89–97.

Cromer, R.N., K.G. Eldridge, D. Tomkins, and N.J. Barr. 1982. Intraspecific variation in the response of Pinus radiata to saline and waste water. Australian For. Res. 12:203–215.

Cropper, S.C. 1993. Management of endangered plants. CSIRO Publications. Victoria, Australia.

CSIRO. 1999. Benefits from CSIRO research for the forestry, wood and paper industries sector: Impact analysis and evaluation. Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Forestry and Forest Products. Canberra, Australia.

Cylinder, P.D. 1995. The Monterey ecological staircase and subtypes of Monterey pine forest. Fremontia 23:7–13.

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Devey, M.E., J.C. Bell, D.N. Smith, D.B. Neale, and G.F. Moran. 1996. A genetic linkage map of Pinus radiata based on RFLP, RAPD, and microsatellite markers. Theor. Appl. Genet. 92:673–679.

Devey, M.E., J.C. Bell, T.L. Uren, and G.F. Moran. 2002. A set of microsatellite markers for fingerprinting and breeding applications in Pinus radiata. Genome 45:984–989.

Devey, M.E., M.M. Sewell, T.L. Uren, and D.B. Neale. 1999. Comparative mapping in loblolly and radiata pine using RFLP and microsatellite markers. Theor. Appl. Genet. 99:656–662.

Dhillon, S.S. 1980. Nuclear volume, chromosome size and DNA content relationships in three species of Pinus. Cytologia 45:555–560.

Doak, D.F. and L.S. Mills. 1994. A useful role for theory in conservation. Ecology 75:615–626.

Dvorak, W.S. 1991. CAMCORE Pinus radiata seed collections in California in 1991. CAMCORE Project 40. CAMCORE, North Caroline State University. Raleigh, North Carolina.

Dvorak, W.S. 1993. Recent advances in the testing and development of tropical and subtropical pine provenances from Mexico and Central America. p. 385–394 In: C.C. Lambeth and W.S. Dvorak (eds.) Proc. IUFRO S2.02.-08 Breeding Tropical Trees. Cartegena & Cali, Colombia. October 9–18, 1992.

Dvorak, W.S., A.P. Jordan, G.R. Hodge, and J.L. Romero. 2000. Assessing evolutionary relationships of pines in the Oocarpae and Australes subsections using RAPD markers. New Forests 20:163–192.

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Echt, C.S., L.L. DeVerno, M. Anzidei, and G.G. Vendramin. 1998. Chloroplast microsatellites reveal population genetic diversity in red pine. Pinus resinosa Ait. Mol. Ecol. 7:307–316.

Eldridge, K.G. 1978. Refreshing the genetic resources of radiata pine plantations. Genetics Section Report No. 7. CSIRO Division of Forest Research. Canberra, Australia.

Eldridge, K.G. 1978. Seed collections in California in 1978. p. 9–17 In: CSIRO Division of Forest Research Annual Report 1977–78. CSIRO. Canberra, Australia.

Eldridge, K.G. 1985. Southern Tree Breeding Association Working Plan No. 1. A technical report of the Southern Tree Breeding Association. Canberra, Australia.

Eldridge, K.G. 1996. Ex situ conservation reserve of the Guadalupe Island population of Pinus radiata D. Don. p. 43 In: Rogers, D.L. and F.T. Ledig (eds.) The status of temperate North American forest genetic resources. Genetic Resources Conservation Program. Report No. 16. University of California. Davis, CA USA.

Eldridge, K.G. 1997. Genetic resources of radiata pine in New Zealand and Australia. p. 26–41 In: R.D. Burdon and J.M. Moore (eds.) IUFRO ’97 Genetics of radiata pine. Proceedings of NZ FRI-IUFRO Conference 1–4 December and Workshop 5 December, Rotorua, New Zealand. FRI Bulletin No. 203.

Eldridge, K.G. 1998. Australian Radiata provenance trials: An annotated catalogue of Australian provenance trials and genetic conservation plantings of Pinus radiata of Californian origin. Australian Tree Seed Centre Internal Report No. 416. CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products, Canberra.

Eldridge, K.G. 1998. Californian radiata pine seed in CSIRO store: What to do with it? Client Report No. 389. CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products. Canberra, Australia. 20 p.

Endler, J., S. Mazer, M. Williams, C. Sandoval, and W. Ferren. 2000. Problems associated with introductions of non-native genotypes in NRS reserves. Report from the Committee to Evaluate Introduction of Exotic Genotypes into UC Reserves. http://nrs.ucop.edu/info/problems_associated_with_introdu.htm.

Epperson, B.K. and T-Q. Li. 1997. Gene dispersal and spatial genetic structure. Evolution 51:672–681.

Eriksson, G., G. Namkoong, and J. Roberds. 1993. Dynamic conservation of forest genetic resources. For. Genet. Res. (FAO) 23:2–8.

Espinel, S. and A. Aragonés. 1997. Genetic parameter estimates for Pinus radiata in Basque country, northern Spain. N. Z. J. For. Sci. 27:272–279.

Espinel, S., A. Aragonés, and E. Ritter. 1995. Performance of different provenances and of the local population of the Monterey pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) in northern Spain. Ann. Sci. For. 52:515–519.

Ezcurra, E. 2001. Biological conservation in Mexico: An overview In: Managing for healthy ecosystems — Vol II. Issues and Methods. In preparation for publication.

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Falkenhagen, E.R. 1991. Provenance variation in Pinus radiata at six sites in South Africa. Silvae Genet. 40:41–50.

Farjon, A. and B.T. Styles. 1997. Pinus (Pinaceae). Flora Neotropica Monograph 75. The New York Botanical Gardens. New York, NY USA.

FAO. 1986. Databook on endangered tree and shrub species and provenances. FAO Forestry Paper No. 77. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Rome, Italy.

FAO. 1994. Report of the Eighth Session of the FAO Panel of Experts on Forest Gene Resources, June 28–30, 1993. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Rome, Italy.

Fielding, J.M. 1947. The seeding and natural regeneration of Monterey pine in South Australia. Forestry and Timber Bureau Bulletin No. 29. Canberra, Australia.

Fielding, J.M. 1957. Notes on the dispersal of pollen by Monterey pine. Australian For. 21:17–22.

Fielding, J.M. 1957. The introduction of Pinus radiata to Australia. Australian For. 21:15–16.

Fielding, J.M. 1961. The pines of Cedros Island, Mexico. Australian For. 25:62–65.

Fins, L. and W.J. Libby. 1982. Population variation in Sequoiadendron: Seed and seedling studies, vegetative propagation, and isozyme variation. Silvae Genet.: 31:102–109.

Fisher, P.J., R.C. Gardner, and T.E. Richardson. 1996. Single locus microsatellites isolated using 5' anchored PCR. Nucleic Acids Res. 24:4369–4371.

Forde, M.B. 1964. Inheritance of turpentine composition in Pinus attenuata x radiata hybrids. N. Z. J. Bot. 2:53–59.

Forde, M.B. 1964. Variation in natural populations of Pinus radiata in California. Part 1. Sampling methods and branch characters. N. Z. J. Bot. 2:213–236.

Forde, M.B. 1964. Variation in natural populations of Pinus radiata in California. Part 2. Needle characters. N. Z. J. Bot. 2:237–257.

Forde, M.B. 1966. Pinus radiata in California. N. Z. J. For. 11:20–42.

Frankel, O.J. and M.E. Soulé. 1981. Conservation and evolution. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge, United Kingdom.

Franklin, I.R. 1980. Evolutionary change in small populations. p. 135–149 In: M.E. Soulé and B.A. Wilcox (eds.) Conservation biology: An evolutionary-ecological perspective. Sinauer Associates. Sunderland, MA.

Fryer, J. 1994. Access to Australia’s forest genetic resources. Bureau of Resource Sciences Working Paper. Bureau of Resource Sciences. Canberra, Australia.

Furman, B.J., D. Grattapaglia, W.S. Dvorak, and D.M. O’Malley. 1997. Analysis of genetic relationships of Central American and Mexican pines using RAPD markers that distinguish species. Mol. Ecol. 6:321–331.

Furnier, G.R. and W.T. Adams. 1986. Geographic patterns of allozyme variation in Jeffrey pine. Am. J. Bot. 73:1009–1015.

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Gascon, C., G.B. Williamson, and G.A.B. da Fonseca. 2000. Receding forest edges and vanishing reserves. Science 288:1356–1358.

Gladstone, W.T. and F.T. Ledig. 1990. Reducing pressure on natural forests through high-yield forestry. For. Ecol. Manag. 35:69–78.

Gordon, T.R., K.R. Wikler, S.L. Clark, D. Okamoto, A.J. Storer, and P. Bonello. 1998. Resistance to pitch canker disease, caused by Fusarium subglutinans f. sp. pini, in Monterey pine (Pinus radiata). Plant Path. 47:706–711.

Gorman, S.W., R.D. Teasdale, and C.A. Cullis. 1992. Structure and organization of the 5S RRNA genes (5S-DNA) in Pinus radiata (Pinaceae). Plant System. Evol. 183:223–234.

Graudal, L., E. D. Kjær, and S. Canger. 1995. A systematic approach to the conservation of genetic resources of trees and shrubs in Denmark. For. Ecol. Manag. 73:117–134.

Graudal, L., E. Kjær, A. Thomsen, and A.B. Larsen. 1997. Planning national programmes for conservation of forest genetic resources. Technical note 48. Danish International Development Agency (DANIDA) Forest Seed Centre. Denmark.

Gray, E.T. 1925. Cross trails and chaparral. The Seven Arts Press. Carmel, CA.

Gregorius, H-R. 1980. The probability of losing an allele when diploid genotypes are sampled. Biometrics 36:643–652.

Gregorius, H-R. and J.R.G. Kleinschmit. 1999. The environmental dichotomy of adaptation and the role of genetic diversity. Silvae Genet. 48:193–199.

Greenlee, J.M. and J.H. Langenheim. 1990. Historic fire regimes and their relation to vegetation patterns in the Monterey Bay areas of California. Am. Midl. Natur. 124:239–253.

Griffin, A.R. and D. Lindgren. 1985. Effect of inbreeding on production of filled seed in Pinus radiata-experimental results and a model of gene action. Theor. Appl. Genet. 71:334–343.

Griffin, J.R. and W.B. Critchfield. 1972. The distribution of forest trees in California. Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station Report No. 82. USDA Forest Service. Berkeley, CA USA.

Guerrant, E.O. and B.M. Pavlik. 1997. Reintroduction of rare plants: Genetics, demorgraphy, and the role of ex situ conservation methods. p. 80–108 In: P.L. Fiedler and P.M. Kareiva. Conservation biology for the coming decade. Second Edition. Chapman and Hall. New York, NY.

Gunter, L.E., G.A. Tuskan, C.A. Gunderson, and R.J. Norby. 2000. Genetic variation and spatial structure in sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) and implications for predicted global-scale environmental change. Global Change Biol. 6:335–344.

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Hall, A.V., M. de Winter, B. de Winter, and S.A.M. Van Oosterhout. 1980. Threatened plants of southern Africa. CISR. Pretoria, South Africa.

Hamilton, M.B. 1994. Ex situ conservation of wild plant species: Time to reassess genetic assumptions and implications of seed banks. Cons. Bio. 8:39–49.

Hamrick, J.L. 1983. The distribution of genetic variation within and among natural plant populations. p. 335–348 In: C.M. Schonewald-Cox, S.M. Chambers, B. MacBryde, and L. Thomas (eds.) Genetics and conservation. Benjamin-Cummings. London.

Hamrick, J.L. 1987. Gene flow and distribution of genetic variation in plant populations. p. 53–67 In: K.M. Urbanska (ed.) Differentiation patterns in higher plants. Academic Press. London.

Hamrick, J.L. and M.J.W. Godt. 1989. Allozyme diversity in plant species. p. 43–63 In: A.H.D. Brown, M.T. Clegg, A.L. Kahler, and B.S. Weir (eds.) Plant popuation genetics, breeding, and genetic resources. Sinauer. Sunderland, MA.

Hamrick, J.L., Y.B. Linhart, and J.B. Mitton. 1979. Relationships between life history characteristics and electrophoretically detectable genetic variation in plants. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 10:173–200.

Hamrick, J.L., D.A. Murawski, and J.D. Nason. 1993. The influence of seed dispersal mechanisms on the genetic structure of tropical tree populations. Vegetatio 107:281–297.

Hanski, I., A. Moilanen, and M. Gyllenberg. 1996. Minimum viable metapopulation size. Am. Nat. 147:527–541.

Harrison, C.M. 1980. Phenetic affinities in Pinus attenuata Lemm. x P. radiata D. Don. hybrids. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Idaho.

Harrison, R.G. 1990. Hybrid zones: windows on evolutionary process. p 69–128 In: D. Futuyma and J. Antonovics (eds.) Oxford surveys in evolutionary biology. Oxford University Press. New York, NY.

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